Stanley Hauerwas @ Fuller’s Symposium on the Integration of Faith and Psychology 2011

By curiosity, when I was preparing the group presentation, I would like to know how Hauerwas see psychology and Christianity. Google, as my best friends, gave me this. Hauerwas delivered talks in  Symposium on the Integration of Faith and Psychology 2011 at Fuller Theological Seminary. It’s about his experience with her wife who developed mental illness (also in  Hannah’s Child) and the theological reflection and the integration with psychology. 3-hour talk. Looking forward to see it all

 

Children Raising – Popa Channel

URL: http://www.popa.hk/     (new windows will pop out)

Popa Channel was founded in 2015 by five parents who are newbie in taking care of their children. Section POPAvideos contains static animation video clips answering some of the commonly asked questions. For example, whether to give attention and embrace the crying baby. Their reasoning comes form a variety of research in field of psychology as an example.

習得性失助 X 我係乜乜乜: 我灰到核爆?

RTHK 第三集嘅「我係乜乜乜:我灰到核爆」[1]  做咗一個關於習得性失助嘅實驗,每一個參加者會被帶到一個模擬監倉裏面兩次,每一次都要參加者將警鐘整停。參加者分為兩組,其中一組參與實驗嘅人無論做乜都整停唔到個警鐘,睇下佢哋第一次會做乜嘢同埋佢哋會有啲乜嘢感覺。

果無論做乜都整停唔到個警鐘嘅人,其中兩個參加者選擇離開監倉,終止實驗。其餘嘅參加者覺得好無助,呢種無助/無力感其實同我地口中所講嘅灰都好相似——好似做乜都改變唔到任何野。之所以叫做習得,係因為係(實驗)過程面學習得來的。

呢個實驗係1967年其實係用狗來做Test Object,一組狗 (A) 可以做一啲野去令到電擊停止,但係令一組嘅狗 (B) 無論做乜嘢都會比電電。另外一組 (B) 做乜都會比電電嘅狗選擇唔掙扎。呢兩批狗肥轉移到另外一個實驗環境,就係係一個盒裏邊中間有一塊好矮嘅木板,左邊會被電擊,右邊就唔會。兩組九開始嘅時候都係會放喺左邊,第一組狗 (A) 係會由左邊跳過右邊,但另外一組 (B)之前無論做乜嘢都會比電電嘅狗係會繼續係左邊比電電,雖然佢(B) 見到第一組嘅狗 (A) 跳左過去右邊 (i.e. 習得)。[2]

上網查下,要得到習得無助感,要fulfill下邊三個criteria [3]

個人(Personal):他們也許會將自己投射到問題上,換句話說,傾向於針對問題來內化自己。

普及(Pervasive):他們也許會認為問題影響了生活中每個層面。

永恆(Permanent):他們也許會認為問題是不可能被改變的。

同埋搵到一篇講梁振講「任何抗爭都是徒勞」係用緊人嘅呢種心理,去令到人覺得其實你做乜同講乜都唔會影響到政府嘅決定,感到好無力好灰,從而令到你唔會再反抗。[4]

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爭取未必一定得到所嚮往嘅嘢,唔爭取唔堅持就一定無。做乜都係一樣!

我的其他文章: Learnt Helplessness 習得性失助 & Interrogation Technique for CIA in Afghanistan

[1]  RTHK – 我係乜乜乜:我灰到核爆 – http://programme.rthk.hk/rthk/tv/programme.php?name=tv/whoami&d=2015-12-26&p=7064&e=336052&m=episode
[2] Wikipedia – Learned Helplessness – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learned_helplessness
[3] 一起走 – 習得性無助 – http://ykwongjiaai.blogspot.hk/2009/05/blog-post_4343.html
[4] Josephi C.K. Cheng / Taku Ryū – https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1514353648823652&set=p.1514353648823652&type=3&theater

Learnt Helplessness 習得性失助 & Interrogation Technique for CIA in Afghanistan

What is Learned helplessness?

Learned helplessness is behavior typical of an organism that has endured repeated painful or otherwise aversive stimuli which it was unable to escape or avoid… In other words, the organism seems to have learned that it is helpless in aversive situations, that it has lost control, and so it gives up trying even that would be effective.

In 1967, the American psychologist Martin Seligman, as an extension of his interest in depression, carried out early key experiments. Electric shocks were given to dogs in two groups but only dogs in the first group can stop the electric shock of both by pressing a lever. To the dogs in Group 2, they probably perceived that the shock ended at random and thus the shock was unable to escape or avoid.

Both groups of dogs were then placed in a shuttle-box apparatus where they could escape socks by jumping over a low partition to another side. Dogs in Group 1 quickly learned this task and escaped the shock. Most of the dogs in Group 2 simply lay down passively and whined when they were shocked. [1]

Interrogation Technique for US CIA in Afghanistan

I learnt this through the ACLU (American Civil Liberties Union) web site accusing of the US government’s failure to honor Geneva Conventions by developing and testing cruel and inhuman interrogation technique based on “Learnt Helplessness”, and to execute such technique, failed to understand and estimate the effect and damage, in Afghanistan. Some (if not all) of them were proved innocent after prolonged torture or interrogation.

Into every domain of knowledge, healing or destruction can both be the possible destiny depending on what direction people are driving towards with their power.

Source:
[1] Wikipedia – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learned_helplessness
[2] ACLU, Out Darkness – https://www.aclu.org/feature/out-darkness